Directions: These are two discussion questions, I must respond to a classmate using 175 words. Must be APA formatted and must use citation. The question is in bold and italic and the responses provided below are from fellow classmates. I must respond to their responses.

Discussion Question: How would you describe an outcome variable? Provide examples of at least three research questions and describe the outcome variables for each.

1. Response: Outcome variables are considered dependent variables. Dependent variables are variables that are measured to see whether the treatment or manipulation of the independent variable had an effect (Salkind 2012). A good example of the outcome variable is the grades a student obtains on an exam. The grades are a result of the students’ hard work measured in the number of hours studying and the student’s intelligence measured in IQ. These are the independent variables.

What effect does daily use of the video game Fornite have on the attention span of children 16 and under? Outcome variable: measured attention span

What effect do different legally mandated monitoring system i.e. car breathalyzer have on the number of people who drive drunk after a DUI? Outcome variable: number of people who drive drunk after a DUI.

Does eight hours of sleep per night for three months increase energy levels and concentration in children with neurological conditions? Outcome variable: measured energy levels and concentration

2. Response: In the case of non-experimental methods, the criterion variable is not “dependent” on something occurring with the independent variable. What happens to the research question in this case? Do the research questions or hypotheses change? How or why not?