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Discuss recommendable strategies to help the most IMR victimized population.

Read carefully the following facts on Infant Mortality Rate in Tennessee

· Type your answers for All Questions in font 12 double space. Use Bureau of Census and textbooks, as appropriate.

 

QUESTION ONE:

Why would these professionals show interest in infant mortality rate

Journalist or medial Professional

Public health professional (federal level)

Public health professional (state, local, or community level)

Health care provider or administrator

Member of an advocacy group or trade organization

Academic, student, or researcher

Government administrator, legislator, or staffer

Concerned citizen

QUESTION TWO

Discuss recommendable strategies to help the most IMR victimized population.

 

NOTES

 

 

 

 

NATIONAL INFANT MORTALITY

TENNESSEE SUMMARY 2018

(https://www.americashealthrankings.org/explore/annual/measure/IMR/state/TN)

 

Public Health Impact: Infant Mortality

U.S. Value:  5.9

Healthiest States: New Hampshire, Vermont: 3.9

Least-healthy State: Mississippi: 8.9

Data Source & Year(s): CDC WONDER Online Database, Underlying Cause of Death, Multiple Cause of Death files; Natality public-use data, 2015-2016

Suggested Citation: America’s Health Rankings analysis of CDC WONDER Online Database, Underlying Cause of Death, Multiple Cause of Death files; Natality public-use data, United Health Foundation, AmericasHealthRankings.org, Accessed 2019.

 

WHY DOES THIS MATTER? Infant mortality is a key indicator of health and the effectiveness of the health care system in a country. With 23,161 infant deaths (5.9 deaths per 1,000 live births) in 2016, the United States infant mortality rate remains consistently higher than that of other developed countries.[1] Further, significant disparities persist in infant mortality, predominantly regarding race — the rate of infant mortality for babies born to black women is more than two times the rate for babies born to white women. Considerable progress has been made in the U.S. over the past 50 years to reduce infant mortality, however, more needs to be done. Infant mortality is associated with many factors before, during and after birth including maternal health, prenatal and postnatal care and access to quality health care.[2] According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the leading causes of infant mortality in 2016, in order, were:

Birth defects

Low birthweight and preterm birth

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

Together these causes accounted for nearly 45 percent of infant deaths.

Definitions:

Infant Mortality Rate – Number of infant deaths (before age 1) per 1,000 live births (2-year average)

Pregnancy care – This consists of prenatal (before birth) and postpartum (after birth) healthcare for expectant mothers; post-neonatal period from 28 days to 11 months after birth.

BMI – body mass index

 

WHO IS AFFECTED? Populations that experience disproportionately high rates of infant mortality include:[2,3]

Racial and ethnic minorities : The infant mortality rate is highest among non-Hispanic black women at 11.3 deaths per 1,000 live births, compared with 4.9 deaths per 1,000 live births among non-Hispanic white women.

Low-income families: Differences in infant mortality across the country, particularly in the period from 28 days to 11 months after birth (postneonatal), are driven by low socioeconomic status.[4]

Unmarried mothers : The infant mortality rate is 73 percent higher among infants born to unmarried mothers compared with those born to married mothers.

Younger and older mothers : The infant mortality rate is highest among infants born to mothers younger than 20 years (8.5 deaths per 1,000 live births) and older than 40 years (7.7 deaths per 1,000 live births) compared with those born to mothers of other ages.

Mothers with obesity: Babies born to mothers with obesity (BMI ≥30) have a greater risk of infant mortality, particularly in the first 28 days after birth (neonatal period). Risk of infant mortality was highest among infants born to mothers with BMIs greater than 35, with more than two times the odds of infant mortality compared with infants born to mothers with BMIs less than 35.[5]

Mothers who smoke or consume alcohol: Babies born to mothers who smoke or drink alcohol during pregnancy have more than twice the risk of infant mortality, particularly in the neonatal period.[6,7,8]

 

WHAT WORKS? Strategies focused on the prenatal period have been successful in reducing infant mortality rates, however, focus on prenatal care alone may not be enough to significantly reduce infant mortality.[9] Improving maternal health before conception has been identified as critical in efforts to reduce infant mortality; postpartum health and well-being is also important for both mother and infant.[10]

 

 

KEY  STRATEGIES  toward decreasing infant mortality include:

Routine medical check-ups and family planning counseling for both men and women before conception focusing on intimate partner violence, alcohol and drug use, tobacco use, immunizations, depression, body mass index, blood pressure and diabetes

Improving access to, and use of, ongoing care during pregnancy

Reducing maternal obesity

Reducing maternal tobacco use before, during and after pregnancy [7]

Increasing home nurse visits to reduce the incidence of SIDS and accidents [4]

The Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs offers an infant mortality toolkit to support state efforts to better measure and address infant mortality rates.

GOALS: Reducing the infant mortality rate is a Healthy People 2020 leading health indicator; the goal is to reduce the infant mortality rate by 10 percent to 6.0 infant deaths per 1,000 live births.

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